Colonialism and Independence in Africa and Asia

Sarah Hunt, Social Studies, Randolph Middle School 



In this unit students will study the causes and effects of colonialism in Africa and Asia, as well as how colonialism, in these territories, led the move for independence. Far too often, students are introduced to African and Asian history through European “eyes”, but through these activities students will give voice to the native cultures and their opinion of colonialism. Also, students will analyze the terms colonialism, nation, nationalism, nation-state, and independence in the sense of community. Because the school I teach at is International Baccalaureate, the unit focus will be guided by the topic of Community and Service, which encourages students to think of the people as a “nation” and the move towards independence as a force by the people. This unit is geared to middle school students and encourages a high level of critical thinking throughout content. Students will practice document reading through multiple literacy techniques and create written assignments in multiple creative and engaging activities. Although the unit is rigorous students will be provided, in the unit, with all resources necessary for success.


To the majority of 7th grade students the Eastern Hemisphere of the earth is a mysterious world of unknown wonders which most children have never heard of until they have entered my classroom; to the remainder of students Africa is a giant desert and Asia is where the egg roll was invented. Being a Humanities teacher at an International Baccalaureate school has allowed me to enrich my students’ lives with the history and culture of distant lands in Asia, Africa, and Australia through rigorous activities and student centered discussions, pushing students to examine their own history through learning about other cultures and societies.

With this past school year being my first teaching the complete history of Africa and Asia, I quickly came to realize that the history of the Eastern Hemisphere typically is folded into European history. Far too often has the culture and story of these ancient cultures been “re-written” into what Europeans thought it should be.

Through this unit, students will focus on how societies in the Eastern Hemisphere were once independent, traveled through colonialism, finally sought independence and created “new” nations.

Unit questions that will guide discussion and content presentation are as follows:

– What is a nation? A nation-state? A constructed nation?

– What were the long term, as well as the immediate, causes and effects of colonialism in Africa and Asia?

– How did Europeans view the native cultures of Africa and Asia?

– By what means, was independence achieved in Africa and Asia?

– How have these colonized societies been viewed throughout history?

– How can the history of the ancient and imperial eras be seen in modern day Africa and Asia?

Unit Objectives

Unit objectives can be found in both the North Carolina Standard Course of Study and the North Carolina Common Core. (Appendix G)

Over the course of this unit, students will be able to participate in activities focusing on the standards found in the NCSCOS and the Common Core, and by the conclusion of the unit be able to devise answers for the unit questions and explain the influence of colonialism around the world through the DBQ Project, writing, and summative assessments.


I consider Africa, Asia, and Australia to be, the “untouched” continents in students’ world history education. Too often are students introduced to the histories of Africa and Asia as a part of European history, but these nations who were influenced by Europeans were culturally, economically, and politically strong long before the influence of Europeans began. Students will focus on how and why African and Asian societies and empires were the targets of European expansion and the effect colonization had on those African and Asian societies’ creation of modern nation- states.



School Background Information

Randolph IB Middle School focuses all aspects of its curriculum on cross curricular and world conscious teaching techniques. Being an International Baccalaureate (IB) centered school the curriculum focuses lessons and content on developing “inquiring, knowledgeable, and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect.” (IB Mission statement) Through understanding world cultures and the development of modern day nations, students become better prepared to be active and educated world citizens.

The International Baccalaureate program breaks down all content into Areas of Interaction which help to focus teacher curriculum on information geared to that particular concept. The Areas of Interaction are as follows: Community and Service, Human Ingenuity, Environment, Health and Social Education, and Approaches to Learning. This unit will focus on Community and Service due to the influence of Europeans and natives on the formation of new nations following colonialism.

Randolph Middle School includes students from many different nations, cultures, and ethnic groups which allows for a very diverse population. This student population allows for discussions based on students’ own history and knowledge of their ancestry and culture as well as conversations focusing on the world’s shared history and cultures.

Randolph encourages collaboration and requires the use of data for student centered classrooms, all of which I recommend to be included in the utilization of this unit. The classroom set-up for the students will encourage collaboration through group stations around the room. Students will take a pre-assessment in order to determine their level of knowledge on the concepts of colonialism and independence in Africa and Asia, which will be valuable with content given throughout unit.

As a teacher at Randolph Middle School, I use collaboration with my peers through vertical and horizontal curriculum alignment discussions among members of the staff. Utilizing the Common Core standards for Language Arts, I focus the students writing on the objectives they will learn in their Language Arts classes. Also, I discuss content given to the students in other Humanities classes (in years prior as well as what they will see in the coming school year) in order to ensure understanding of all background information and to prepare my students for success in the years to come.

Topic Information

African Societies

In previous units students will have discussed the major accomplishment and cultural components of the African societies of Egypt, Kush, Axum/Aksum, Great Zimbabwe as well as the empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai; students will also have an understanding of the geography and natural resources available on the continent of Africa. Students will be able to use the content from their sixth grade Social Studies curriculum to discuss the influence of industrialization in Europe which encouraged colonization. Review may be necessary for some students regarding data accumulated from the unit pre-assessment. I suggest such activities as journaling, brain dumps, and mind maps in order to see what students need to have reviewed and what is understood fully by the class.

Asian Societies

In previous units, students will have discussed the major accomplishments and cultural components of Asian societies. This includes the Ottoman, Muaryan, Gupta, and Mughal empires as well as the Dynasties of China. Students will be familiar with the geography of these areas as well the resources available. (Review may be necessary for some students; data accumulated from the unit pre-assessment will provide guidance here.) (Appendix A)


Throughout this unit, colonialism will be defined, and considered in terms of both its causes and its effects. My working definition of colonialism is “to control a territory once used by another society to further the economic, cultural, and/ or political power of a nation.” Students need to understand that colonialism was used as a means to encourage power and growth of the colonizing nation, but in many cases this hurt the culture and economy that existed in the colonized area. European colonizers rarely took into regard the traditional lands of the people they conquered. In many cases, student will view how forcing together regions caused strife among the peoples.[i]

Throughout the discussion of the territories in Africa and Asia, it should be noted that not all kingdoms were “consumed” by the Imperial monster. For example, the territory of modern day Ethiopia was able to keep its independence because of their practice of Christianity. This common cultural trait created an immediate understanding of these tribal people. Also in Asia, China kept their independence through the policy of isolationism. China, although surrounded by colonized nations, kept their borders closed by competing in the global market with the European nations. Although Britain maintained a sphere of influence among the people of Asia, it was not until the end of the Imperial era, isolationism faltered for China due to the hunt for resources such as porcelain, silk, and opium. China remained politically independent but succumbed to the British “sphere of influence” in their once purely Chinese culture.[ii]

Students will use categories to help organize material throughout the unit; these categories are economic, political, and cultural (causes and effects). By providing these “bucketing topics” students will be able to compare and contrast material regarding all colonized nations discussed throughout the unit. Below I have outlined subtopics that will be included when discussing topics in each category.

– Political- government, human rights, citizenship

– Economic- trade, natural resources

– Cultural- clothing, opinions of race and ethnic groups, traditions, language, art, religion

After discussing the basic concepts of colonialism and its effects on societies’ students will begin a detailed analysis of colonialism through the DBQ Project (Document Based Questioning). Students will review the causes and effects of colonialism in Africa, specifically Kenya. The DBQ Project provides educators with primary and secondary resources ready for immediate use in a classroom setting. These documents push student to analyze material and concepts through documents and answering the “big question”.


The independence movements for colonized nations often began with a struggle to create unity among the native, and in some cases, European people, such as the settlers of South Africa. This movement to create national unity is titled “nationalism”.[iii] To summarize nationalism, from multiple definitions, nationalism is the unification of a group of people, who may be connected by a shared history, culture, or land, through language, struggles, music, territory, or a shared enemy. Nationalism can be broken into two types as well, being popular versus official. Popular nationalism is one that is created by the masses while official is dictated by the national government. A second term students should be familiar with is a nation-state; meaning a society which has a government in place but no specific territory to govern. Examples of this can be found in both U.S. and World History.

In the United States, the Cherokee nation has a constitution which governs its people but they do not have a territory which is purely governed by the Cherokee constitution. (Students should be familiar with the Cherokee and their culture from the elementary curriculum.) A World History example, which applies directly to the 7th grade curriculum, is the nation of the Kurds, located in the Middle East. Although they are united with a shared history, culture, and government, the Kurds have no territory of their own and live among the countries of the Middle East. Because students will be examining the creation of nation-states, students also need to be familiar with the term “constructed nation.” The concept of a constructed nation can be discussed in two terms: political and cultural nation; political meaning the government boundaries and the cultural nation being one with a shared community and history.[iv]

A constructed nation is one that is created by the population of the territory (culturally constructed) or by the group of people in control of the government (politically constructed). Many times the native population seeks for a new purpose in their culture and society, using the past as a means of unity. For a culturally constructed nation example, Liberia, located in Western Africa, was a territory purchased by the United States as a new homeland for freed African- Americans after slavery was abolished. Once these people returned to their “homeland,” no government, economy, or culture was in place; because of this a “new” nation was constructed to provide for the “native” population. Another constructed nation example is Rwanda, which was a colony set up, by Belgium, without regard for native tribes that lived in the territory. During Belgium’s reign, a policy of “divide and conquer” was used in order to ensure Dutch control over the native population. Through this policy the natives were turned against one another (Hutu versus Tutsi), which was not an issue prior to the Imperial era. Following independence, the native people turned to their “shared history” or what they thought was their history causing the tribes of Rwanda to turn against each other beginning a horrific genocide. In regards to a group of people creating a politically constructed nation, we can reference Nazi Germany and their “hunt” for a new Germany composed of a pure Aryan race. (When reviewing politically constructed nations, fascism is typically the leading form of government to implement this national construction.)

In discussing independence movements in Africa and Asia, breaking down the movements into two forms, violent and non-violence, allows students to classify information for easier analysis as well as compare the influence of non-violent independence movement leaders at the conclusion of the unit.

Note- At the conclusion of the year’s curriculum, I have created a modern nations and current events unit. In this unit, I plan to include the Revolutions of 2011 in North Africa. This unit, Colonialism and Independence in Africa and Asia, provides an excellent platform for the discussions of these “brand new” nations in Africa.


My Masterpiece

My Masterpiece is a student centered, artistic way to demonstrate knowledge of a topic. Students receive a blank sheet of copy paper (white) and a topic. This topic can be assigned by the teacher, student chosen, or randomly assigned (picking the topic out of a cup). After creating a quick border around the edges of their paper students may use markers, crayons, and colored pencils to express their understanding of the topic. Their drawing must take up the entire paper and use little to no words. When students turn in their work, the teacher should be able to understand immediately what topic is being described. This strategy was modified based off a PEAK Learning Systems activity.[v]

Cornell Notes

At Randolph Middle School, teachers are encouraged to format their notes in Cornell format. This allows for students to practice a note-taking style that is proven to help with content knowledge retention and understanding. Have students fold their loose leaf paper in half, utilizing the left column for the slide headings and the right side for all content pertaining to that particular concept or topic. Students will then use the fold in their Cornell notes to quiz themselves on the material assigned.

Compare and Contrasting Activity

Throughout this unit students will be requested to compare and contrast multiple colonies regarding the cause and effect of European involvement. One strategy that I use with my students is creating Venn Diagrams. Students then have a graphic organizer of all material and can easily determine similarities and differences between people, regions, and events. At the conclusion of all graphic organizers, I have students write 3-5 sentences on their findings. By adding a literacy strategy to their activity students are practicing multiple critical thinking skills all in one activity.

Mind Maps

In mind maps, students can use words and cartoons (drawings) to express their understanding of material through cause and effect chains, connections between concepts, and main idea versus details. Students begin their map in the center of the page with one word. This word can either be assigned by the teacher or randomly chosen by the student. From this word, students write lines out to other topics/ concepts which remind them of their starting word. For example: If my topic were Exploration, I may write out names and places like Christopher Columbus, South America, Ferdinand Magellan, etc. Then from each of these second round items I would continue with words that further on that topic. For example: For Christopher Columbus I would write Portugal, ruthless, Haiti, etc.

Mind Maps allow for students to “connect the dots” between topics they might have not connected at first. Using critical thinking and high reasoning skills students will better be able to demonstrate their knowledge of content.


In this writing strategy, students have the opportunity to take on the role of a historical character and tell a side of the story by someone from or about whom we may not have documentation from. Each letter in R.A.F.T. stands for an aspect of their writing:

R- Role

A- Audience

F- Format

T- Topic

Role regards who the student is pretending to be. This may be a historical figure or an imaginary person who was affected by the topic or event discussed in class. Audience and format pertain to who is reading this material and how the information is to be presented. Finally, topic regards what material the student is focusing on throughout their R.A.F.T. assignment. An example of this assignment follows.


Pretend you are a European colonist living in South Africa. Write a letter to the editor of your homeland’s newspaper about your first impressions of this new territory.

R- European Colonist

A- Editor of a European country’s newspaper

F- Letter

T- First impression of the colonized territory


Brain Dump

In this activity, students quickly and quietly list as many ideas, concepts, details, and facts they know about particular topic as possible. Student should be given a set amount of time and may not stop writing until that time is up. This allows students to focus on what they do know, and identifies for the teacher and the students items that may need to be clarified on throughout the discussion or class period.


WICR is a strategy developed by AVID specialists that has been proven to improve literacy skills in all types of students. This literacy technique breaks down activities for students into four categories: Writing, Inquiry, Collaboration, and Reading. By going through all aspects of WICR allows for full understanding of material. Listed below are possible activities for each aspect of WICR:

W- Cornell notes, quick writes, authentic writing, learning logs, and process writing.

I- Socratic seminar, investigations, questions that guide research, skilled questioning, and tutorials.

C- Philosophical chairs (debates), peer editing, service learning, and peer evaluations.

R- Vocabulary building, reciprocal teaching, graphic organizers, and word count summarize.


SOAPSTone is a document reading technique that has students focus on particular aspects of a document. For each letter in SOAPSTone, there are questions or topics for students to discuss and respond to through class discussions and/or writing assignments. SOAPSTone is used as follows:

S- Speaker- The voice that explains the story.

O- Occasion- The time and place of the document or where the image or document takes place.

A- Audience- Who are the readers? Who is this writing or picture directed to?

P- Purpose- The reasoning behind the text.

S- Subject- The topic, content, and/or ideas behind the text or image.

T- Tone- The attitude of the author.

(Information regarding SOAPSTone can be found online via[vi]




Listed below is a day-by-day description of activities and topics that will be discussed throughout the unit. The unit including the final summative assessment should be completed within 15 class blocks lasting 90 minutes apiece.

Day 1

Students will spotlight on the causes of colonization in Africa and Asia in the 17th Century; focusing, as stated before, on economic, cultural, and political causes. To begin, a class discussion on what Europe was experiencing at this time in history will be discussed as well as a brief overview of the centuries to come, including but not limited to the Berlin Conference, Industrialization, and the Era of Exploration and finally World War I. Students are to participate in this activity through a Brain Dump/Journal entry. The beginning of colonization in Africa and Asia contains a multitude of information that is best formatted in Cornell notes, through teacher lecture and/or incorporating a PowerPoint presentation. A class reading of Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” and a native KUA poem, will follow distribution of the content. (Excellent and natural introduction into document reading for students, see Day 2-6)

“The White Man’s Burden” is a long poem, but the first stanza alone clearly depicts the basic causes of colonization from the perspective of ordinary Europeans. At the conclusion of reading both poem stanzas, students will have free write time, where they may state any thoughts, feelings, or concerns they may have felt from their reading. This is intended not only as a writing strategy but also as a means to focus the student for the class discussion. (Appendix C)


Day 2- Begin DBQ Project

Day 2 will focus on how to read and interpret historical documents. Beginning class with a journal prompt allows students to focus on the material that will be studied in class. The prompt I provide is “What is a historical document? What types of documents can we look at to better understand the time period we are studying?” Throughout the class discussion of this journal prompt students will come to understand different types of historical documents and the difference between primary and secondary resources. (Appendix E)

Next, I break up the class into groups, which they will work in for the duration of the unit, and assign each group one document to review. Throughout this activity students will use the SOAPSTone technique to analyze their assigned documents. Each student group will present its document to the class to demonstrate how they used the SOAPSTone technique to understand the reading/ cartoon. I will provide each student with a guiding worksheet and the group with the SOAPSTone break down so students can help each other succeed in the day’s lesson. (Appendix B)

Day 3

The DBQ Project section of this unit will focus on the use of primary and secondary sources to analyze the effect of colonialism in Africa. The first DBQ used is entitled “How Did Colonialism Affect Kenya?” Although this DBQ focuses primarily on the British involvement in Kenya, it does provide a rare glimpse into documents regarding political and economic changes as well as the cultural influence European nations had on their colonized territories. Begin the DBQ by reading the background essay as a class and then have students complete a journal listing the possible causes and effects of Europeans in Kenya. (Students should utilize their journal and previous knowledge in discussion.) For the remainder of class, students will work in teams of 3-4 students (previously assigned Unit groups) analyzing documents provided in the DBQ project by using the SOAPSTone strategy. (Like day 2) Students will organize the information in a chart provided and will utilize the chart for the remainder of the DBQ project. (Appendix E)

Day 4

Begin by defining culture, politics, and economy. It is imperative that students understand each one’s components in order to “bucket” their documents. When “bucketing” documents students will be placing reviewed documents, in the appropriate content location: cultural, political, and economic. Students will begin “bucketing” independently, then in their group setting, and finally together as a class. Students should use their chart to help guide their decisions and to defend their “bucketing” techniques. During the 2nd half of class, students will practice thesis statement writing through the “chicken-footing” technique. In this strategy, students will graphically represent the components of a thesis. After creating a thesis, students will list documents which they will use for evidence in each particular “bucket”/ content paragraph. (Appendix E)

Day 5-6

Day 5 and 6 will consist of students creating their introduction, body, and conclusion paragraphs for their DBQ essay. Students will have guiding worksheets (Appendix E) and loose leaf to work out their essay on. Student may also utilize their peers (unit groups) and the teacher for advice and guidance in the development of their essay. (Common planning with Language Arts teachers is a great tool to provide cross curricular strategies throughout the writing of the students essays.)

Day 7-8

For days 7 and 8, students will be provided with a peer essay and evaluation rubrics to work with while reviewing their group members’ essays. (Appendix D) Prior to breaking off into groups, students will be taught basic editing tools and signs while working. Most importantly students will discuss the importance of constructive criticism and how they can help and hurt their peers through comments made. This activity will take up one block. On day 8, plan to give students time in the computer lab to type their essay.

Day 9

Day 9 is focused on colonialism effects around the world. Africa and Asia should be compared in contrasted in how they were each similarly and differently affected by European conquest. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will participate in a RAFT assignment where they will take on the role of one of the following roles:


Option #1

Pretend you are a native from a territory in Africa or Asia and your homeland has been invaded by European colonists. Write a poem describing your thoughts and feelings towards this new life you must lead. (Your poem must be at least 12 lines long/ 3 stanzas.)


Option #2

Imagine you are an explorer who has come to Africa in search of riches. Write a diary entry that demonstrates your knowledge of African geography and what it might have been like to explore this foreign land during the 19th Century. (Your diary must be at least 10 sentences long. Remember to include information about the native tribes found in the area, the geography, why you are in Africa, and your thoughts and feelings towards colonization as a European explorer.)


Option #3

Consider the positive and negative effects of European imperialism in Africa and Asia. Write a letter to the editor of a European newspaper to demonstrate your thoughts on the subject. (You must include at least 3 pros and 3 cons in your letter.)

Day 10- Begin Nationalism and Independence

Day 10’s content will focus on the formation of nationalism. Students will analyze the components to forming a nationalist movement and how native cultures united against European control. Vocabulary such as a constructed nation, nation-state, and nationalism as well as terms/ concepts such as common history, shared territory, similar culture and creation of a native vernacular will be discussed. As a group activity, students will travel the room through a gallery walk. Each station of the walk will contain a different aspect of nationalism, including documents, music, and art from colonized nations for students to review. At the conclusion of the gallery walk students will participate in a “quick write” and a Socratic seminar to discuss the concept of nationalism.

Day 11

Students will be focused on the push for independence made in Africa and Asia. Two categories that are used to help analyze these movements are violent versus non-violent movements. Students will receive content through a lecture, using Cornell note taking, and then complete a mind map on independence movements.

Day 12

Day 12 is to be used to wrap up content on independence movements through a comparison of Mohandas Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and their respective work to gain human rights and national independence in their respective lands. Because of students’ familiarity with Dr. King, many students enjoy learning about the similarities between these three influential civil rights leaders. The DBQ project will again provide the background essay on Gandhi, Mandela, and King through the essay “What Made Non-Violence Work?” Students will read the background essay on these three men and utilize literacy techniques, such as highlighting and annotating throughout.

At the conclusion of the essay students will review with their group members one speech or document written by each civil rights leader. Following completion of all documents, students will complete a triple Venn Diagram comparing Gandhi, Mandela, and King. (Appendix F) As a class, a discussion will be held examining the similarities and differences. Finally, each student will create a “My Masterpiece” assignment based on the individuals discussed during class.

Day 13

Review day for all material on colonialism and independence. Utilize such activities as mind mapping and review games best suited for your class.

Day 14

Students will demonstrate the knowledge they gained through this unit by retaking the Unit exam (pre and post assessment) and completing several additional short answer questions successfully.


Appendix A

Ancient Societies and Empires Accomplishments Chart- General break down of content taught to students prior to the unit through lessons in prior units/ quarters.

Society Accomplishments
Ancient Africa Architecture- Pyramids, ObelisksWriting System- Hieroglyphics (Egypt) and Ge’ez (Aksum)

Culture Notes- Animism Religion (environment houses spirits of ancestors), tribal lands (no land ownership, communal territory)

Empires of Africa- Ghana

– Mali

– Songhai

Architecture- Timbuktu (Islamic learning center of Africa)Writing System- Arabic (Influence of Islam through trade)

Economy- Gold and salt trade (Very wealthy empires)

Culture Notes- highly influence by Islam!!!

Empires of the Middle East- Ottoman Architecture- Minarets (columns surrounding mosques and palaces), Arabesques (repeated patterns throughout architecture)Writing System- Arabic (central location of Islam)

Culture Notes- government and society based off of Islam, Caliph (ruler of an Islamic nation), Westernization (become like Europeans under Suleyman the Magnificent), Pasha- province rulers

*Mesopotamia- Cradle of Civilization

Empires of India- Mauryan

– Gupta

– Muhgal

Architecture- Taj Muhal, Stupa (building that housed relics of Buddhism)Writing System- Hindu characters

Culture Notes- Buddhist culture (non-violent), province rulers, pits stops for travelers, medallion passports for safe travel throughout empire, creation of weeks, hours, decimal system, and concept of zero

Dynasties of ChinaAncient

– Zhou, Shang, Han, Qin


– Sui, Tang, Song, Mongols

Philosophies- Daosim. Confucianism, and Legalism (rarely practiced religion)Culture Notes- elegant culture, Terra Cotta Warriors, Great Wall of China, Mandate of Heaven, Civil Service Exam, *Wish to protect their culture from other influences!

Economy- Silk Road


Appendix B

SOAPSTone Worksheet and Guiding Tool- Used to help student analyze material provided in documents.

Document Title: __________________________________________________________

Date/ Time Period of Document: __________________________________

Author: ________________________________

Publisher: __________________________________


Guiding Questions


S- Speaker Who is telling this story? What is the view point is the document using?  
O- Occasion When and where was this document created? What caused the document to be written?  
A- Audience Who is the document meant for?  
P- Purpose What is the purpose or reason of the text? Why was it written? What for?  
S- Subject What is the topic of this document?  
T- Tone What is the author’s attitude towards the subject/ content?  


Appendix C

White Man’s Burden- Literary discussion and writing assignment.

Directions: Read the following passages. When you are done, complete a free write on what you feel this means and how it made you felt. Complete the Post Discussion Response following the class’ discussion of the passages.


“KUA” Hymm


Kua Tribe, Africa

You Europeans are nothing but robbers–

Though you pretended you came to lead us.

Go away, go away, you Europeans,

The years that are past have been more than enough for us.


The White Man’s Burden


By: Rudyard Kipling

Take up the White man’s burden —
Send forth the best ye breed —
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives’ need;

Free Thought Response


Post Discussion Response



Appendix D

Peer Editing/ Evaluating Rubric- Give to students to help guide them through editing their peers work.

Editing Guidelines for DBQ Essay

Author: ____________________________________________

Editor: _____________________________________________

  Guidelines Questions? Suggestions
Content -Clear details provided-Bucket details and statements are clear and “make sense”

-Information provided is correct (both from documents and discussions in class)

Grammar -Use of proper grammar-Sentences are clear and demonstrate correct knowledge

-Proper vocabulary and use of documents throughout essay

Organization -Student followed organization guidelines: Intro., thesis, body paragraphs, and conclusion-Each paragraph stays on topic and clearly demonstrates the students thoughts    

Constructive Comments for Author:


Appendix E

Document Based Questioning Prep Packet

Unit: Colonialism- DBQ- How did colonialism affect Kenya?


Activity 1: Types of Primary Sources.

Fill in the blanks on the following types of primary sources. See how many you can fill in right away! Afterwards right your own definition of a primary and secondary source on the lines given below.

Primary Source: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Secondary Source: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Types of documents:



Use the SOAPSTone strategy to interpret documents for use in answering the “big question.” (How did colonialism affect Kenya?”)


S- Speaker- Who is telling this story? What is the view point is the document using?

O- Occasion- When and where was this document created? What caused the document to be written?

A- Audience- Who is the document meant for?

P- Purpose- What is the purpose or reason of the text? Why was it written? What for?

S- Subject- What is the topic of this document?

T- Tone- What is the author’s attitude towards the subject/ content?

Activity 2: Document Overview

As students present the documents discussed in their group, you are to take notes on the key aspects of each. Fill in the following boxes in preparation for evidence in your essay outline. (We will be working on this together as a class as well.)

Document Name & Number

Main Idea

Evidence for Main Idea




Activity 3: Bucketing Documents.

For each of the documents discussed place them in their appropriate “bucket”.



Economic Political Cultural

For each “bucket,” create a statement that represents how each will help to answer the Document Based Question: How did colonialism affect Kenya?

Economy: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Politically: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Culturally: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Activity 4: Creating your thesis.

By reviewing each of the statements you created, use them to make your thesis.

  1. Begin with restating your question.
  2. Next complete your “chicken foot” diagram, by using the general concept behind each bucket.

Thesis Diagram-


Activity 5: DBQ Response Outline.

Complete the following outline by referring to your document list, bucketing, and chicken foot diagram. Be sure to complete this in as much detail as possible because it will help to guide you while writing the essay.

Paragraph #1- Introduction

Grabber: (Sentence that grabs the reader’s attention.)

Thesis: (The major point you are to defend or argue/ your chicken foot diagram.)

Roadmap: (The introduction into the buckets you will be analyzing throughout your response.)

Appendix F

Venn Diagram of Dr. King, Nelson Mandela, and Mohandas Gandhi- Utilize the DBQ Project background essay “What Made None-Violence Work?” on these civil rights leaders to complete the Venn Diagram.



Gandhi King Mandela



Appendix G

Implementing State Standards

Colonialism and Independence in Africa and Asia

This unit utilizes the Common Core Standards which are to be adopted in the school year 2012-2013 by the state of North Carolina. The Standards which will be discussed during this unit are listed below:

– 7.H.1- Use historical thinking to analyze various modern societies.

– 7.H.2.1- Analyze the effect of social, economic, military and political conflict among nations, regions, and groups.

– 7.H.2.2- Evaluate the effectiveness of cooperative efforts and consensus building among nations, regions, and groups.

– 7.G.1.1- Explain how environmental conditions and human response to those conditions influence modern societies and regions.

– 7.G.1.2- Explain how demographic trends lead to conflict, negotiation, and compromise in modern societies and regions.

– 7.E.1.1- Explain how competition for resources affects the economy.

– 7.C & 7.G1- Understand the development of government in modern societies and regions.

– 7.C.1- Understand how cultural values influence relationships between individuals, groups and political entities in modern societies and regions.

For the school year 2011-2012, the North Carolina Standard Course of Study was used as a tool during the creation of the unit.

– Competency Goal 1, 2, 4, 6, and 7

– Goals 5.01, 5.04, 8.01, and 9.01

Bibliography and Teacher Resources

Anderson, Benedict . Imagined Communities. 1983. Reprint, New York: Verso, 2006.

Anderson breaks down multiple aspects of nationalism, including cultural traditions and language, into easy reads focused on providing clear explanations and answers for multiple audiences.

Church, Peter . A Short History of South-East Asia. 4th ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2006.

Book which provides brief explanations into the history of South-East Asian countries; an easy read for teachers looking for more material.

Gordon, April , and Donald Gordon. Understanding Contemporary Africa. 2nd edition ed. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1996.

This book outlines the entire history of Africa providing an understanding of the struggles the continent faces today.

Hodgkin, Thomas. “Theories and Myths.” In Nationalism in Colonial Africa. New York: New York University Press, 1956. 169-186.

In chapter six, a wonderful excerpt of an African hymn is provided which was written during the colonial period. This passage provides insight into how the native population felt towards their colonizers.

Rogers, Spence . Teaching for Excellence. Conifer: Peak Learning Systems Inc., 2010.

The PEAK Learning Strategies book has provided my classroom with multiple meaning and fun activities for my students. These strategies have brought my content to life and provided multiple means for me to present information clearly.

Siavelis, William , and Mary Roden. “How Did Colonialism Affect Kenya? and Gandhi, King and Mandela: What Made Non-Violence Work?.” In DBQ Project- Document Based Questions in World History. Evanston: The DBQ Project, 2010. 293-304 and 325-339.

Wonderful resource for teachers! The DBQ Project provides many options for teachers to choose from. This allows you to create your own personal project through documents and guiding questions provided.

Smith, Anthony. Nationalism. 2nd ed. Malden : Polity Press, 2001.

Wonderful resource for any teacher looking to better understand the concept of nationalism; provides clear and detailed examples from multiple areas around the world as well.

Chicago formatting by



[i] Gordan and Gordan, Understanding Contemporary Africa

[ii] Church, Short History of South-East Asia

[iii] Anderson, Imagined Communities

[iv] Smith, Nationalism

[v] Rogers, PEAK